Painting Light

HOW TO PAINT LIGHT

I teach students how to paint and draw light. I am also a lighting specialist. My fascination with light encompasses, not only the commercial, retailing aspect, but the artistic as well. Once drawing and painting skills are developed to the point where students can accurately put down what they see, creating light and shadow is studied and faithfully delineated subject matter emerges in a world of space and volume.

LEARNING TO SEE

Basically, the depiction of light and shadow is accomplished by using dark and light colors in painting and tonal gradations in drawing. For a beginning student this often requires some visual skills.. First, I tell the student it is necessary to convert what they see to a two-dimensional vision that they can translate to a two-dimensional surface like a canvas or a sketchbook page.

POWERFUL GRIDS

Seeing objects two-dimensionally can be done in several ways. The easiest (and most time-tested) is to construct a grid in front of the subject matter–that could be actual objects, a photo or a picture. This can be done most simply by holding a pencil vertically and horizontally against the viewed objects, comparing their shapes to the vertical and horizontal lines of the pencil.

Another time-tested method is to literally construct a grid on plate glass or Plexiglas and place that grid in front of the objects. Now the viewed objects are intersected by many squares (depending on how large or small the squares in the grid are.) Each quadrant (square) of the grid can then be painted or drawn independently and upon completing the entire grid, the composition of objects is finished to compose an accurate picture of the objects.

Light and shadow are more easily discerned and created with this grid method. How objects are illuminated can be defined on paper or canvas by observing and re-creating light and shadow at play in each quadrant. In accomplishing this by shading and highlighting, illumination and therefore, volume is created, the illusion of the three-dimensional space is created, reborn on a two-dimensional surface.

EARLY LINE AND COLOR

Accuracy, as well as light and shadow were not always the motivation behind depicting artful images. Before the Renaissance, art works in Europe depicted objects ( figures, landscapes, buildings) in a flat space. There was no light and shadow. Figures were delineated and colored in a style much like a coloring book. These images translated well to stained glass windows and mosaics. Their simplicity of line and color contributed to the strength of the iconography, often of religious significance.

EARTHLY LIGHT

With the discovery of perspective, space and volume became important to artists as well as the depiction of light and shadow. Symbolic icons and images described by line gave way to depictions of illuminated space. In perspective, objects recede and advance in a two-dimensional space that is totally visually believable. To augment the receding and advancing figures with directional light and shadow completed the believability, creating a world the eye could explore as a simulated, illuminated three-dimensional environment.

GOLD LEAF TO EARTHLY LIGHT

Spiritual light, the vehicle of infinity was often expressed with the use of gold leaf in Medieval altarpieces. The warm, glowing, reflective surface behind religious figures imbued the work with a rich and reassuring statement-the glory of heaven and God’s power. A more earthly light replaced gold leaf in the Renaissance. Spiritual figures were bathed in sunlight and swathed in shadow. The light that illuminated the humble shepherds was the same light that shone on Jesus and his followers.

REPEATING HISTORY

It is interesting to me that the journey a beginning drawing or painting student takes often replicates the historical transition from the Medieval use of line and color-in style to the Renaissance application of illuminated space and volume. And, with more advanced students, their journey often continues to repeat the contemporary return to line and color-in, the preference for depicting flat, shallow space and solid color.

I find this reassuring. The art world is wide open, brimming with many styles, images, materials and skills. For today’s artist, everything is available, to use towards a creative purpose. All of history as well as the latest technological/digital images are ready to be researched and developed.

Automatic Motorcycles

German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach first developed motorcycles in 1885. It was a revolutionary petroleum-powered means of transportation that had provisions for a pair of stabilizing wheels. It came to be known as the riding car. Former models were large, bulky and had poor handling capabilities. Development of motorcycles began to progress after the First World War that saw extensive use of motorcycles, especially by Germans. These models were made with the help of new internal combustion engines that many manufacturers and producers of bicycles adapted in their designs.

Motorcycles were widely used as an economical solution to deal with rising prices of transportation. Prices of motorcycles were high at that time but yielded better returns over a period of time. As new internal combustion engines became additionally powerful and designs outgrew its bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers reduced. India was the largest manufacturer of motorcycles until Harley Davidson launched its bikes in the market in 1928.

Motorcycles are moderately complicated machines that make use of a “chassis” to support other parts of the bike, a “fairing” to mask the front end of the handle, “suspensions” to absorb shocks and reduce wear and tear of the motorcycle, wheels, an engine, a   transmission , and brakes. These are a few basic elements of a bike, along with some more technical mechanics involved, such as oil tank, chains, odometers, and so on. The engine comes in two variants where one of them is a popular option for most due to its simple usage.

Automatic Motorcycles eliminate the hassle of frequently changing gears during traffic or other stops. Nevertheless, manual  transmission  is preferred as it is more economical that the automatic  transmission  models. Auto  transmission  feature takes a toll on the fuel consumption of the bike. Young people find it easy to use automatic Motorcycles because this operation is less complicated and the performance is comparable for limited use.

While purchasing an Automatic Motorcycle it is advisable to opt for a 4-stroke engine as it provides better fuel economy.

Rohan Online Half Elf Ranger Class Build (PvP-PvE)

Half Elf Ranger Class Build (PvP/PvE)

The half elf ranger build in my opinion is the king of solo. This build is designed to bombard enemies from an insane attack range. The Ranger has a decent critical rate and some great rooting spells.

Stat Build: Your leveling points should be distributed as 1VIT – 3 DEX or This ranger build has no psyche so you are gonna rely on pots for your mana so you must be careful not to deplete it too soon.. You will have some decent HP with 130 points of VIT just in case someone might be lucky enough to get close to you.

This build has a large distribution of DEX to boost your ranged attack quite a bit. You will have great damage and a long range to do it in.

PvE: The easiest class to solo with by far and one of the fasted classes to level also. Most mobs won’t even get close enough to you to do any damage since you have long attack range and have the ability to slow your target mobility speed. Only ranged mobs will have that chance to get a few shots off before they hit the ground bleeding. You only really need to cast one skill per mob before they die since you will be doing some nasty normal ranged attack damage. You will also have an easy time when in a high level mob grind party. You don’t really have to move around much just let tankers tank and do a little pulling here and there.

PvP: The ranger class i one of the few classes that do well against ranged and melee based classes in PvP. You take down magic type classes pretty easily and melee classes can be stunned and slowed down to a crawl before they can get to you. You can do some powerful critical damage at a long range using Critical Shot. The ranger has some great PvP skill at their disposal including Luxury Shot and Premium Shot leaving enemies with missed parts of their HP bar lol. A nice spell to initiate your PvP sequence is Speed Wind which boosts your attack speed to an insane rate that lasts 10 seconds. When a melee class finally does get to you, hit them with Brandish Kick which has a 70% chance to stun target for 9 seconds. You can kite away from enemies easily since you have increased mobility skills.

Conclusion: This ranger build is balanced and you will have extended use of your skills and will be able to solo and pvp well. You don’t have a whole lot of mana so be careful. Remember that range is your advantage, don’t let melee get to close or they will rip you up 🙂

Stat Point Build at Level 99

The recommended spell upgrades:

(Half Elf Archer Tree)

1. Darkness-Level 5: Increase dark dmg 100%, res50% 8% chance decrease target’s 30% atk spd for 7 sec.

2. Psychic Pierce-Level 1: 160% of normal dmg.

3. Long Shot-Level 5: Increase 50% of attacking range for 9 min.

4. Enchanted Arrow-Level 5: Increase arrow damage by 30 for 30 min.

5. Fainting Pierce-Level 5: 35% chance decrease target movement speed by 50% for 10 sec, last 18 min.

6. Bleeding Shot-Level 1: Effect ‘bleed’ dealt 70% of normal dmg every 3 seconds, occur 5 times.

7. Nimble-Level 5: Increase dex by 30%, lasts 30 min.

8. Brandish Kick-Level 5: 70% chance stun the target that last 9 second.

9. Feeble Arrow-Level 1: Decrease target 3% of str last 30 seconds.

10. Fatal-Level 5: Critical dmg increases by dex * 3.0, last 15 min.

11. Sprint-Level 4: Increase movement speed by 80% in 27 seconds.

12. Evade-Level 1: Increase evasion rate by 10% last 18 min.

13. Piercing Root-Level 4: Normal attacks 130%, 50% chance hold the target in place for 5 second.

14. Double Strike-Level 1: Increase 20% of normal dmg, attack target twice.

The recommended spell upgrades:

(Half Elf RangerTree)

1. Crossbow Mastery-Level 5: Increase X-bow’s atk by 25%, last 30 min.

2. Open Eyes-Level 1: Instantly removes root status.

3. Trick-Level 1: Wouldn’t get attack by npc guard during gvg and during red-name period, last 5 min.

4. Detect-Level 1: Detect hidden target within the range of 10m, last 30 sec.

5. Dissapear-Level 1: 50% chance become hidden, last 30min. moving, atking or using item will expose.

6. Siege Shot-Level 5: Unable to move for 10 sec, mean while atk + 90%.

7. Murder Shot-Level 5: Increase atk dmg by murder count * 90.

8. Speed Wind-Level 5: Increase atk spd by 160%, last 10 sec.

9. Kael’s Arrow-Level 2: Create 100 bolts with dmg of 120.

10. Alacrity Blow-Level 5: Increase dex by 15%, last 30 min.

11. Strip Shot-evel 5: Ignore defense, increase dmg by 70%

12. Rank Shot-Level 1: Total damage = weapon’s rank * 50.

13. Critical Shot-Level 5: When hit the target, 90% chance occur critical hit.

14. Premium Shot-Level 1: Increases weapon’s atk by 200%.

15. Magic Guard-Level 1: Do not affect by magics for 10 seconds.

16. Luxury Shot-Level 1: Increases weapon’s atk by 200%.

17. Winged Foot-Level 5: 18 mp per sec, party member increase movement spd by 100%.

Auto Mechanics Curriculum – Preparing for the Job of the Future

While taking driver’s education class in high school, for part of the curriculum, a man insisted his daughter take a basic auto mechanics class. They fought for weeks about this class. It was unnecessary. It was ridiculous. After all, she was a girl. After much verbal sparring, she took the class and enjoyed it, using her knowledge many times.

Years later, it became clear why the man wanted his daughter to take this class. Someday, her car would break down. The auto club would not always be able to come to her aid. Roadside assistance is not always available. Especially when the breakdown occurs in the middle of the desert. A person could wait hours for help. That could be dangerous. It was important to know how to fix the basics on her own.

When she became a parent, and her teenage daughter was ready to learn to drive, it was their turn to fight about taking the class. The mother insisted and her daughter relented. As it turns out, after much arguing, the student really enjoyed it. Since she did not have a “head” for business, or fashion, or mathematics, or English, or any other subject for that matter, it seems the one thing she excelled at was fixing cars.

After taking all of the basic classes the school had to offer, the student’s instructor suggested a transfer to the local high school that offered full vocational technical programs. The transfer took place, and for the next two years she took a number of classes like basic tune-ups and trouble-shooting, tire rotation and balancing, transmission repair, engine repair, fluid transfers for oil changes and transmission fluid, and air conditioning, among others. Upon graduation from high school, the student became a licensed auto mechanic.

For this young lady, that was not enough. She wanted to specialize in foreign cars. That required a whole new set of classes. Thus began her enrollment in the local college vo-tech. Another two years and she earned her A.S. Degree in Auto Mechanics. She was able to fix anything on wheels. However, as with any industry, evolution takes place. The new hybrid vehicles are already on the market, and the electric car is just around the corner. She continues with her education to maintain the high level of expertise necessary for the cars of the future.

Auto mechanic classes can help a student with their future. To become a mechanic, one must learn problem-solving skills. Mechanics is a process. So is life. One cannot put gas in a car that has no engine. Such is the same with life. One step at a time.

For students that struggle in school, vo-tech classes and auto mechanic classes have historically been extremely challenging. Their opportunities for success were once unlike the mother and daughter that both took auto mechanics classes and flourished.

Victory Motorcycle Shift Ratchet Replacement

The Victory Motorcycle is a very well built piece of machinery. I have owned a Victory Kingpin since 2004. I have had no problems with the motorcycles and am very pleased with my motorcycle. This article will address the one issue I did have that is related to a failed shifter part. The dreaded Victory Shift ratchet.

One day while riding, I began experiencing downshifting problems my kingpin. It only happens from time to time and it feels like it is hanging up when i am trying to downshift. I have adjusted the clutch cable and changed the oil with no resolve. I am running full synthetic AMSOIL 20W50 motorcycle oil in the transmission and was thinking the oils was too thick for the clutch plates. After changing the oil to the Victory OEM multi-blend synthetic, the problem with shifting still existed.

I decided to take a few more test rides to diagnose the problem. I did notice that if i push the shift ratchet shaft in (has about 1/8 inch movement in and out) it seems to temporarily stop the problem. I went to the Victory Motorcycle Solutions community site and have read people talk about shift ratchet as being the culprit. after reading several posts on this information, I contacted my favorite Victory motorcycle dealership, Santa Rosa VeeTwin. They confirmed that I need to replace the shift ratchet. The reason being the rest spring fails over time.

The Victory dealership explained that Victory changed the ratchet somehow after 2000 due to hard shifting complaints. They also stated that they have seen more issues like this with those Victory riders with driver floorboards. The drivers with floor boards will typically do a lazy shift. Anyhow the ratchet will be worn on both ends, thus allowing the shifting to continue down and not engaging.

Being that I am handy with a wrench and always up for a challenge, I ordered the OEM replacement parts from Victory. I needed to get the shift ratchet and new transmission gaskets. I have the Victory Kingpin service manual but it did not explain exactly how to do this shift ratchet replacement. So I took my time and video taped everything.

The basics steps involved in doing this shift ratchet replacement is as follows:

1 – Drain all of the oil out of your Victory Motorcycle. Trust me, I did not do this and made a huge mess when I removed the transmission cover.

2 – Remove all of the transmission cover bolts.

3 – Now the hard part, pull of the transmission cover. Note the clutch magnet is very strong and will not want to give up the cover too easily. Pull straight out and watch your fingers.

4 – Once the cover is off and the remaining oil spills out, observer how the shift ratchet is positioned. Note this by taking a picture or video taping it. You will need to install the new shift ratchet in the same position with the star wheel engaged correctly.

5 – Do the replacement and not clean off the old transmission cover gasket and install the new one. This is a must to prevent leakage.

6 – Install the transmission cover. Again be mindful of the magnet, this will suck the cover right on and take off your finger if you are not paying attention.

7 – Install the cover bolts evenly and check torque settings.

8 – Fill the bike up with AMSOIL full synthetic 20W50 V-Twin motorcycle oil.

9 – Start the bike and check for oil leaks.

10 – If all looks good, test ride the bike and see how wonderful it is to have the shifter working again.

You are now one of the few and proud Victory motorcycle owners to go through this incredible maintenance activity.

SWOT Analysis of the New Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle

Honda is changing the vehicle market as we know it, by making a vehicle that emits water vapor. Honda’s FCX Clarity fuel cell car is the new breed for green cars. This car has some similarities to hybrid, but nothing compares to its new fuel source hydrogen. Besides hydrogen it runs with an electric motor that generates electricity to the fuel stack and a lithium ion battery. The lithium ion battery serves as a supplemental power source. The lithium ion battery charges up while braking and decelerating. Some questions might arise when thinking about this new fuel cell vehicle, like what makes this car better than the other hybrid cars? What are the Honda FCX Clarity strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats?

One of the biggest strengths about this new fuel cell vehicle is that it emits water vapor and is designated as a Zero emission vehicle (ZEV). The environmental protection agency (EPA) has given this vehicle the lowest possible emission rating. It also can be driven up to 280 miles before being refueled with hydrogen. FCX Clarity is achieves an energy efficiency of 55% which is twice the energy efficiency of the hybrid vehicles and three times the efficiency of regular gas vehicles. Since FCX Clarity is more energy efficient it has been one of the first fuel cell vehicles to receive certification from the EPA and the California Air Resources Board. Unlike the hybrids the FCX Clarity doesn’t need to be plugged in to be charged up and there is no need for regular gas.

Honda has many opportunities with this new fuel cell vehicle. First off Honda is designing a home refueling station. No more worrying about going out and getting refueled at the pump. Home refueling stations will elevate the stress at the pump. Also, Honda could make this fuel cell vehicle a household name and market this vehicle all over the globe. Honda just needs to get out there to show off their new vehicle. Honda is starting to market the new fuel cell a little bit. Honda has just released the FCX Clarity for Japan.

One of the few weaknesses for this fuel cell vehicle is its limited availability in the United States. Southern California and Japan are the only two areas where this new vehicle is available. Honda plans to release around 200 vehicles in 3 years in California and Japan. Honda believes that this new fuel cell vehicle will be able to be mass produced by 2018. I think this is one Hondas biggest downfall is the limited release and so few refueling stations.

This car is a little small it’s only able to carry four people. The cost of the FCX Clarity is about 600 a month on a 3 year lease. It seems a little steep for someone who is middle class to afford that payment. Not anyone is California will be able to lease this new vehicle. These people who are selected live near the refueling stations and they make a limited amount of commutes.

Basically Toyota and GM vehicles are Hondas biggest threat. With so many new hybrids and small gas efficient cars, this creates a problem for Honda. Another threat is Chevrolet. Chevrolet has developed a fuel cell SUV “the Equinox” and it has already arrived at New York City, Washington D.C. and Southern California. With this being said, it becomes a race between Honda and Chevrolet with the new fuel cell technology. How would the new fuel cell FCX Clarity size up in popularity? The lack of mass production and refueling stations, Honda won’t have a chance.

I think Honda has come up with a good concept car with its new fuel source. The new fuel source needs to be researched further before they should market this vehicle. This car is for people who are willing to go green and have the money to do it. The whole problem is making this car available to the public and easily accessible.

On the other hand Honda has a comparative advantage because of their home refueling station. There is no other vehicle out there that you can just plug in and refuel at home. Hybrid vehicles rely on battery and gas to run. You have to plug the hybrid in to recharge the battery.